"If you do not know the names of things, the knowledge of them is lost, too."
—Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalized binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms.


Gaul in the time of Julius Caesar.
   The ancestors of the Hause family lived on the coastal plains between what is now France and northern Germany about two thousand years ago (long before they were called Hauses), in a region of Western Europe that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, called Gaul. Julius Caesar's Roman army destroyed the area in the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC, and as many as 1-in-5 Gauls died in the onslaught. Those who survived either were either integrated into the Roman culture of Gallia (as the Romans named it), or fled to find a safer home in other parts of Europe or the British Isles.
   Where our ancestors moved next is open to debate. Family historians have been arguing for hundreds of years where our line moved. Some say that our ancestors remained in the area that is now Germany, and some say they migrated to what is now England. Wherever they lived, they survived Roman rule, endured the Middle Ages, escaped wars, plagues, droughts and purges, and eventually sailed across the Atlantic Ocean at the turn of the 18th Century, ending up in the British Colonies of America. Conditions there were harsh, as cold winters, starvation, disease and war with the local natives made life difficult—and still much better than it was where they came from. We descend from some tough people.

   Unfortunately, the paper trail for our family only goes back to the mid-1700s in Colonial America (and a lot of that was burned up in a fire in Haverstraw in the 1840s). Beyond that, genealogists had to connect scraps of third-hand evidence to oral histories that had obviously been jazzed-up to thrill the kiddies at bedtime, since nobody in our family seemed able to write before 1700. With such limited evidence, historians couldn't come to a definitive conclusion as to where the Hause family was from.
   Until recently, the only way a family historian or genealogist could trace a person's ancestors was by tracking a surname back through the generations. In cases of adoption, bastardy, alias, government order, or even bad spelling, the trail ended, and the rest would be guesswork. At best, people who weren't in royal lineages could track their family back a few hundred years, to the advent of surnames.
   When tracing a surname through history, you follow a line of word variants that lead you to a single source; for instance, the modern Johnston was derived from the surname Johnson (or its spelling was mangled by a census taker), which a few hundred years ago was a simplified version of John's Son, who obviously (hopefully) came from (you guessed it) John.
   Now, let's go back in time. Anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) emerged about 200,000 years ago in Africa. If a name had been attached to the first Homo sapiens man (let's call him, say, "Adam"), then every Homo sapien man alive today would have a variation on that name, depending where and when they lived (e.g., "Adam," "Adams," "Adamson," "MacAdam," "Fitzadam," "Von Adam," and so on). But without records, language, or even names, the identity of our earliest ancestors have obviously been lost to time. It would be tens of thousands of years before there was a recognizable language, and 190,000 years before our ancestors truly became modern man... and 199,500 years before they would be named "Hause."
   But since the discovery of genetic fingerprinting by Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester and the advent of DNA testing, a much richer, deeper and truer family history can be uncovered. Much like a surname, Y-DNA is handed down in a male line from father to son—but there's no census taker to mangle the spelling, and instead of names that have only been handed down for a few hundred years, we can follow a Y-DNA sequence in a man's genes (a "haplogroup") that goes back hundreds of thousands of years. Like a surname, haplogroups can develop variants, (mutations): parts of the chain that spell out a man's Y-DNA can get dropped or resequenced as it is passed on to the next generation. By comparing one man's Y-DNA to the Y-DNA of other men, from different times and places, we can follow a trail of mutations back in time and place, in order to figure out when and even where the DNA first changed, and who it came from.

Human v. Neanderthal
A comparison of contemporary Homo Sapien and Homo neanderthalensis skulls.
   75,000 years ago, our species of Homo sapiens (also called Cro-Magnon, named after the site of first discovery in France¹) shared the planet with at least four other species of early humans: Homo erectus, Homo neanderthalensis, Homo floresiensis, and a fourth species discovered in 2016, called Homo sapiens denisova (the "Denisovans"), who were related to Neanderthals.
   The Homo sapien men in Europe at that time belonged to Y-DNA haplogroups BT, CT, C, F, and IJ (the ancestor of the Hause family was in the Haplogroup IJ²). The average height of Homo sapiens men ranged between 179 and 194 cm—taller than the other species. They were characterized by a well-built body, a strong jaw bone, big hands, dark skin and blue eyes. (Basically, everything I'm not, 75,000 years later.) They spoke with nasal pronunciation, characterized by melodic accentuation and a specific sentence intonation. These tall, well-built, melodic smooth-talkers (am I really descended from these people?) got along swimmingly in the genetic soup with the other species—sometimes too well: Suave hunter/gatherer Homo sapien men, always on the hunt for prey and a good time, followed migrating game into Europe, and while on this exotic hunting trip, hooked up with the local, more physical but less articulate Homo neanderthalensis women. ("What happens in Lascaux stays in Lascaux, right?") But soon there were children—and rushed, sling-shot weddings; there's also evidence that Homo sapiens interbred with Homo erectus, the "upright walking" human, Homo habilis, the "tool-using" human, and possibly others. (I have to stop; in this context every one of these names becomes a double-entendre.)
   But nature stepped in to stop this multi-species key party about 74,000 years ago, when modern humans almost became extinct. Extreme climate change from ice ages and volcanic activity such as the Toba super eruption may have reduced the Homo sapien population to about 10,000 adults of reproductive age. The other human species dwindled even further, unable to adapt to the environmental changes, until they disappeared completely. By 70,000 years ago, Homo erectus was extinct. 28,000 years ago, Homo neanderthalensis died out, as well, just as Homo sapiens was crossing the Beringia land bridge into Alaska. 17,000 years ago, Homo floresiensis disappeared too, leaving Homo sapiens as the sole survivor of the once diverse human family tree; the last man standing with a now-decisive monicker, a "European early modern human" (EEMH), and only himself left to go to war with.
   While all of his hunting competition was dying out, Homo sapiens had learned to adapt to the changing landscape, and the population numbers bounced back. Natural selection ensured that only the best and the brightest survived, and modern man and the culture he created progressed rapidly; he found better hunting grounds with a liveable climate, developed more sophisticated communication, and invented advanced tools made of bone and antler to make daily life easier. He invnted cars with no floorboard so he could propel the vehicle with his feet (no wait, that was The Flinstones). He invented the boat, sailing all over the world. He became self-aware, creating music, art, and religion. (When you climb into a boat and sail out past the horizon with no idea if you'll ever find land, it was probably easy to find religion.)
   Around 45,000 years ago, Homo sapiens took this technology with them into Europe.


Map showing human migration out of Africa (click to enlarge).

   The Hause family can be traced back to Western Europe through its original Y-DNA haplogroup ("IJ"), and we can track where they lived through its mutations as it was passed from father-to-son, long before they were known as Hauses. Through genetic mutation, we know our oldest traceable Homo sapiens ancestor (since he's our paternal ancestor, we'll call him Cro-Magnon-Hause), lived 45,000 years ago.¹ His people were the first of his species to colonize Europe. Once Cro-Magnon-Hause migrated to his swell foreign digs (the exact region of origin cannot be determined since Paleolithic Europeans were nomadic hunter-gatherers), his IJ haplogroup male descendents, adapting to a new environment (or maybe their gonads were just too cold from the ice age), mutated into Haplogroup "I," which probably first appeared in Europe about 43,000 years ago.²
   Cro-Magnon-Hause didn't sail to Australia with the other guys; he stayed back in Europe; maybe he hung out in caves by all himself, sensitive and alienated, painting more grafitti on the wall (Cro-Magnon-Hause longed to leave a permanent mark); maybe he sculpted curvaceous, big-breasted stone Venus figurines and hid them under his animal skin bed before his mom came home to the cave. Cro-Magnon-Hause was a new breed... but he had no way of knowing that his genetic markers had mutated... he just knew he was different.
   Cro-Magnon-Hause eventually settled down and started a family, and they resided in Western Europe for the next 20,000 years. After that, our family's Y-DNA mutated again, into subgroup I-M170 about 22,200 years ago, at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.

HOMO SAPIENS (CRO-MAGNON)

Cro-Magnon (Homo sapiens)
  • Cro-Magnons evolved in east Africa from Homo erectus, through the intermediate form of Homo rhodesiensis. Rhodesiensis fossils range from 600,000 to 300,000 years ago.
  • Life expectancy at birth was about 25 years, and the adult mean age at death was 32.³
  • Cro-Magnons were anatomically modern, straight limbed and tall compared to the contemporaneous Neanderthals. They are thought to have stood 5 ft 5 in to 5 ft 7 in tall. They differ from modern-day humans in having a more robust physique and a slightly larger cranial capacity.
  • Cro-Magnons throughout Europe spoke with nasal pronunciation, characterized by melodic accentuation and a specific sentence intonation.
  • Cro-Magnons were primarily big-game hunters, killing mammoth, cave bears, horses, and reindeer. They hunted with spears, javelins, and spear-throwers.
  • Cro-Magnons had blue eyes and dark skin, as alleles related to the light skin characteristic of modern Europeans (TYRP1 SLC24A5 and SLC45A2) were not yet present.⁴
  • Around 28,000 BCE ("Before Common Era," the same as "BC"), a Cro-Magnon notation, possibly of phases of the moon, was carved onto a bone, and later discovered at Blanchard, France. Cro-Magnons who inscribed messages on bone were 95% more likely to have a dog eat their homework.
  • Cro-Magnons were descended from the patrilineal Y-DNA haplogroups Haplogroup IJ (the original Hause group) and C1, and maternal mt-DNA haplogroup N (and descendant haplogroups R and U).
  • Cro-Magnons were early modern humans; Although broadly similar to modern humans, Cro-Magnons differed from contemporary populations in having larger browridges, wider faces, and larger skulls.
  •    The next mutation in our chain, subclade (a subgroup of a Haplogroup) I2a1b1 (also known by its shorthand name, I-M223, also expressed as I2-M223, previously as I2a2; this stuff changes fast⁵), then appeared in Western Europe. The first man to be I2a1b1 (let's call him Proto-Hause since everyone who is I2a1b1 descends from him) probably lived in Europe about 14,000 to 18,000 years ago—hunting and gathering around what is now called northern France.
       Proto-Hause's father was not in Haplogroup I2a1b1, nor were any of his brothers. They were all in Haplogroup I-M170. Proto-Hause was "special." A sperm from Proto-Hause's father had a Y-chromosome that mutated, and it fertilized his mother's egg at his conception, so the I2a1b1 "family" was created in that moment—before there were Germans, or Britons, or even Hause's—making Proto-Hause's descendants different than everyone else on Earth.⁶


    Map showing the concentration of the I2a2 (I2a1b1 or I-M223) haplogroup in modern Europe, centering mainly in Germany.

       For millions of years all humans, early and modern alike, had to find their food. They spent a large part of each day gathering plants and hunting or scavenging animals. Then, within just the past 12,000 years, Homo sapiens made the transition to producing their own food. Humans found they could control the growth and breeding of certain plants and animals. This discovery led to farming and herding animals, activities that transformed Earth's natural landscapes—first locally, then globally. As humans invested more time in producing food, they settled down. Villages became towns, and towns became cities. With more food available, the human population began to increase dramatically.
       Meanwhile, lonely, sad-eyed Proto-Hause could never settle down and kept hunting and gathering, searching farther and farther afield for good hunting grounds. Meanwhile, his cousins with an "I2" haplogroup stayed on the farm, grew fat and contented, developing white skin and blonde hair about 8,000 years ago around what is now Sweden, and became Continental Europe's largest paternal lineage from the Mesolithic era. Proto-Hause's clan did okay, too, because as they traveled through these new towns and farmlands on their hunts, they met a lot of I2 farmers' daughters and had a few kids of their own.
       Proto-Hause's descendants were probably among the first (re)settlers of Britain, Ireland, and Scandinavia as the ice sheets receded. Our I2a1b1 hapologroup stayed with them, unchanged, passing from father-to-son, generation after generation. Areas populated predominantly with this lineage seem to be associated with Germanic languages—not because Proto-Hause spoke a Germanic language (he most definitely did not), but because by about 1000 BCE many proto-Germanic groups had large numbers of I2a1b1 men—like the areas in northern Sweden and the center of Germany that are dark blue in the modern map. The regional concentrations may be due to particular lines of descendants who became dominant patrilineal clans in various Germanic tribes.

    CHEDDAR MAN

    Model of Cheddar Man rendered by Kennis & Kennis Reconstructions for the NHM.
  • Cheddar Man was a Mesolithic hunter-gatherer (fully modern human) who lived in what is now England about 10,000 years ago, just as Homo sapiens was giving way to modern man. He was about 166 centimetres tall and died violently in his twenties. At the time Cheddar Man was alive, Britain was attached to continental Europe and the landscape was becoming densely forested.
  • Cheddar Man has the genetic markers of skin pigmentation usually associated with sub-Saharan Africa. He had dark skin and pale colored eyes, either blue or green, and dark brown hair, indicative of the population of Europe at the time. Pale skin and blond hair didn't come along until later, after the arrival of farming.
  • Cheddar Man's diet would have consisted of seeds and nuts, red deer, aurochs (large wild cattle extinct since the seventeenth century) along with some freshwater fish. Like all humans across Europe at the time, Cheddar Man was lactose intolerant, so he was unable to digest milk as an adult.
  • Modern-day British people share approximately 10% of their genetic ancestry with the European population to which Cheddar Man belonged, but they aren't direct descendants. Current thinking is that the Mesolithic population that Cheddar Man belonged to was mostly replaced by the Neolithic farmers from the Near East who migrated into Britain later.
  • Cheddar Man's skeleton was uncovered in 1903 during improvements to drainage for Gough's Cave in Cheddar Gorge, a popular tourist attraction in Somerset, England. According to several Victorian accounts, a large quantity of bones, teeth of extinct animals, flint knives and bone instruments were, unfortunately, wheelbarrowed out from the site and lost. Bloody tourists!
  •    About 4,000 years ago, our I2a1b1 hapologroup mutated again into the sub-branch I-CTS1977 (which is now shown in longhand as I2a1b1a2b1a1), in Continental Europe (Germany, the Benelux countries of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg; various sub-branches have also evolved in the British Isles) that was then called "Gaul." At the time, Gaul encompassed an area of 191,000 square miles (494,000 km).
       The Hauses were then part of a Y5282 subgroup that formed somewhere 2,000 years ago on the coastal plains of Gaul between France and northern Germany, about the time that Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the area in the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC. As many as a million people (probably 1-in-5 of the Gauls) died, another million were enslaved, 300 clans were subjugated and 800 cities were destroyed during the Gallic Wars. Somehow our ancestors survived. Gauls with the Hause family's Y-DNA subgroup dispersed into north-eastern Sweden, to France, and the British Isles (especially in Scotland and Ireland). Others stayed and contributed to the Gallo-Roman culture that emerged, and integrated themselves into the Roman Empire.

    LIFE IN THE FIRST CENTURY, A.D.:
  • The world's population was somewhere around 231 million; The most populated areas are the communities based around the Ganges, Tigris, Yangtze, Nile and Po rivers; China's census in 2 AD counted 57,671,400 people.
  • The average life span is conjectured to be about 35 years. (The 35-40 average life span of people in the Western world held true through the Dark Ages, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance).
  • Europe, North Africa and the Near East fall under increasing domination by the Roman Empire, which continues expanding.
  • Only about 75% of babies will survive their first year; half of all children die before the age of 10. It is up to the father to decide whether or not the family will keep a newborn baby. If the baby is deformed or the family can not afford to keep it, the baby will be abandoned in the streets, where someone might take it in as a slave or servant.
  • Jobs in Rome included camel driver, pigeon contest organizer, and dog dung collector; The list of jobs that were looked down upon by the general public included the shepherd, "the dealer in products from the sabbatical year," butchers, and doctors.
  • AD 1: Lions become extinct in Western Europe.
  • AD 9: The defeat of three Roman legions in the Teutoberg Forest by Germanic tribes, under the leadership of Arminius, establishes the Rhine as a natural boundary of the Roman empire.
  • AD 28: John the Baptist joins various others who travel about Galilee preaching. John makes verbal attacks on the Judah's king, Herod Antipas—the son of Herod the Great. John is imprisoned and executed sometime before AD 30.
  • AD 29: A young man whose name in Greek is Jesus creates a following of his own, while recognizing there is none greater than his former leader, John the Baptist. Jesus goes to Jerusalem for Passover, and creates a disturbance. He is executed—by stoning if convicted of blasphemy and by crucifixion if for some other offense, around AD 33.
  • AD 40: Emperor Caligula plans to invade Britain, but his army decides not to invade Britain without asking him. Later accounts purport that Caligula then declares war upon the sea, whipping it and taking shells as prisoners.
  • AD 43: Roman conquest of Britain begins under Emporer Claudius, and this time the army actually complies. The Celtic chieftains of Britain adapt willingly to Roman customs and comforts.
  • AD 50: A working week of seven days is adopted in Rome, based on the seven known planets (whose names provide the days).
  • AD 79: Mount Vesuvius erupts, covering Pompeii and other towns with up to 12 feet of ash. Pompeiians are flash-heated to death without time to suffocate.
  • AD 80: The Roman Empire reaches largest size, under Trajan; The Colosseum is inaugurated by the emperor, Titus, with games lasting 100 days, in which some 9000 large animals are killed.
  •    Roman control of Gaul lasted for five centuries, until the last Roman rump state, the Domain of Soissons, fell to the Franks in AD 486. But just because the Romans were finally gone from the area doesn't mean that our ancestors had it any easier. Life was hard. Between 540-542 AD, the "Große Pest" (Bubonic plague) killed up to 10,000 people a day in Europe, North Africa, and the Near East. Then between 1345-1400 AD, "The Plague" (which at this point was reoccurring so often that it got its own familiar nick-name), struck again and killed at least a third of Europe's population. Somehow the mopey, solitary, hunting and gathering sons of Proto-Hause, pulled through. Their inability to farm and settle down in cities, which had limited their numbers compared to other haplogroups in Europe, probably kept them out of the most congested, infected areas, and helped save them from nature's purges.⁷
       Between wars and plagues, the descendants of Y5282 started to search for better lives elsewhere and dispersed all over the world; but we can observe their aggregates in many regions, from north-eastern Sweden to France in the west and the British Isles, especially in Scotland and Ireland.
       The human race was growing and moving so fast that people started needing a better way to identify who they were to other populations. At the time, most people in Europe had only one name (in fact this is still true in some scattered areas). As infant baptism was an integral part of church rites, the common practice was that the baby would take the given name of its sponsor at the christening—which resulted in a very limited number of names being used. Six or seven for either sex would have covered 90% of the population of Germania—Margaretha, Elisabetha, Juliana, Katharina, Susanna, Dorothea, Konrad, Georg, Jakob, Philipp, Adam, and Johannes. Sometimes the name was preceded by a courtesy saint's name, which had to be Johann for boys and could be Anna or Maria for girls.
       Soon tracking down a particular "John" (or "Johann") in a densely-populated village became a nightmare. As the population began to grow in ever-expanding towns and cities, there needed to be a way to differentiate between all of the Johns, Williams and Roberts living in the same area. You couldn't just ask what a person's haplogroup was; there needed to be a simple way to set people apart.
       To overcome this problem, the use of family names (or "surnames") came into vogue in the 14th and 15th centuries. Each family's name evolved from definable characteristics of the head member. For instance, if the tallest William in town was called "William the long fellow," then ultimately he became "William Longfellow." It was also common to select a term indicating the person’s location or occupation. So "John who lives by the apple orchard," eventually became "John Appleby" (which eventually became a very mediocre restaurant chain, but that's another story).
       Eventually, these lines developed surnames in order to tell the different families apart.⁸ One line became what we now spell as "H-a-u-s-e" (unless you work at Starbucks, then good luck spelling anything close to that). Another line apparently moved to the British Isles and became "Bennett," because I get a lot of 12-marker Y-DNA matches with men of that name, so there's a 99% chance of a common ancestor about 24 generations back. Our ancestor was not just a Proto-Hause and a Proto-Bennett; He was also a Proto-Braun (German), and a Proto-LeForte (French), and a thousand other names. (Proto-Hause got around.⁹)
       Whatever the last name, we're all just struggling to figure out who we are and where we came from. This is my particular journey. I hope you're enjoying yours... and if you're a Hause, I hope that your spouse isn't named "Bennett" or "Flohrmann."
       This leads us to our first chapter, which starts with a legend...

    CHAPTER ONE: THE LEGEND OF JOHN HAUSE,
    1690 - 1721. "The first John Hause was born in Germany in the year 1690, and when an infant, on account of Religious Persecutions, he was transported by his 'cousin', Queen Mary II, of Great Britain, House of Stuart, Daughter of James II and Anne Hyde, born 1662, married William, Prince of Orange at the age of 17, reigning 15 years, and died in 1694 of Small Pox, leaving no children. A kind, meek, and noble Queen."


    NOTES ON THIS PAGE:

    ¹—The original Cro-Magnon find was discovered in a rock shelter at Les Eyzies, Dordogne, France. The type specimen from the site is Cro-Magnon 1, a male, carbon dated to about 28,000 14C years old. Compared to Neanderthals, the skeletons showed the same high forehead, upright posture and slender (gracile) skeleton as modern humans. The other specimens from the site are a female, Cro-Magnon 2, and another male, Cro-Magnon 3. The condition and placement of the remains of Cro-Magnon 1, along with pieces of shell and animal teeth in what appear to have been pendants or necklaces, raises the question of whether they were buried intentionally. If Cro-Magnons buried their dead intentionally, it suggests they had a knowledge of ritual, by burying their dead with necklaces and tools, or an idea of disease and that the bodies needed to be contained. Analysis of the pathology of the skeletons shows that the humans of this period led a physically difficult life. In addition to infection, several of the individuals found at the shelter had fused vertebrae in their necks, indicating traumatic injury; the adult female found at the shelter had survived for some time with a skull fracture. As these injuries would be life-threatening even today, this suggests that Cro-Magnons relied on community support and took care of each other's injuries. The Abri of Cro-Magnon is part of the UNESCO World Heritage of the "Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley."

    ²—Origins and history of Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA): Haplogroup I is the oldest major haplogroup in Europe and in all probability the only one that originated there (apart from very minor haplogroups like C6 and deep subclades of other haplogroups). It is thought to have arrived from the Middle East as haplogroup IJ sometime between 45,000 and 50,000 years ago, and developed into haplogroup I approximately 40,000 years ago. It has now been confirmed by ancient DNA test that Cro-Magnons, the first Homo sapiens to colonize Europe 45,000 years ago, belonged to haplogroups BT, CT, C, F, IJ and I.
       Our Haplogroup I parent is I-M170, which is one of the most numerous haplogroups among European males. Subclades (such as I2 and I-M223) can be found in most present-day European populations, with peaks in some Northern European and South East European countries. Consequently, I-M170 represents up to one-fifth of the male population of Europe, being the continent's second major Y-DNA haplogroup (behind Haplogroup R). The haplogroup I-M170 reached its maximum frequency in the Balkans (with the highest concentration in present-day Herzegovina). It may be associated with unusually tall males, since those in the Dinaric Alps have been reported to be the tallest in the world, with an average male height of the range 180 cm (5 ft 11 in) - 182 cm (6 ft 0 in) in the cantons of Bosnia, to 182 cm (6 ft 0 in) - 186 cm (6 ft 1 in) in the cantons of Herzegovina.
       Haplogroup I2a1b1 (L69.2(=T)/S163.2) was known as I2a2 until recently (S33/M436/P214, P216/S30, P217/S23, P218/S32, L35/S150, L37/S153, L181), as I1c until 2005 and I2b until 2010. It is associated with the pre-Celto-Germanic people of north-Western Europe, such as the megaliths builders (5000-1200 BCE). Its age has been estimated between 21,000 and 13,000 years old, which corresponds to the Epipaleolithic period. I2a2 is found in most of Europe and could have had a continent-wide distribution before the arrival of Neolithic farmers. Although it hasn't been identified in the few Mesolithic Y-DNA samples available as of 2016, I2a2a was found in Neolithic Spain and in southern Russia during the Yamna culture, at each extremity of Europe, while I2a2b has been found in central Germany since the Early Bronze Age. This very ancient dispersal and its relatively low modern frequency makes it very difficult to assess what happened to each branch before the Late Bronze Age or the Iron Age.

    ³—A study done on two populations of neolithic skeletons (15,000 - 12,000 YBP ["Years Before Present"] and 12,000 - 8,000 YBP) lists life expectancy at birth as about 25, and the adult mean age at death as 32. The ratio between adult mean age at death for females and males was swapped between the two cultures, which is a little odd. In any case, the two had the same mean (Hershkowitz and Gopher 2008:445).

    ⁴—Hunter-gatherer European had blue eyes and dark skin, by Rebecca Morelle, Science reporter, BBC World Service; 27 January 2014. "Scientists were able to extract DNA from a tooth of one of the ancient men and sequence his genome. The team found that the early European was most closely genetically related to people in Sweden and Finland. But while his eyes were blue, his genes reveal that his hair was black or brown and his skin was dark."

    ⁵—The name of the Hause family's haplogroup is I-M223 (also expressed as I2-M223) in shorthand, and I2a1b1 in longhand, and its Haplogroup I parent is still I-M170. But now the Hause family has been placed in a sub-branch of M223, called I-CTS1977, shown in longhand as I2a1b1a2b1a1, which was named in June of 2018. The reason for the change was that as more and more SNP sub-branches have been discovered and named, the ISOGG (International Society of Genetic Genealogy) needed to rename the longhand alpha-numerical form of the branches of Haplogroup I, in order to accommodate all of the new sub-branches.
       Way back in the olden days of genetic science (about 2002-2005), there were just these branches of Haplogroup I:

    I (I-M170)

    .... I1 (I-P38)
    .... I1a (I-M253)
    .... I1b (I-P37)
    .... I1c (I-M223)

       By 2006, when the ISOGG started setting out the "Y-Tree," the I-M223 branch was renamed, with four sub-branches:

    I1b2a (I-M223)

    .... I1b2a1 (I-M284)
    .... I1b2a2 (I-M379)
    .... I1b2a3 (I-P78)
    .... I1b2a4 (I-P95)

       In 2008, there was another renaming of the branches in Haplogroup I. The I-M223 branch was then named I2b1 with the same four sub-branches now being I2b1a, I2b1b, I2b1c, I2b1d. These remained the case for many years with the major testing companies.
       The longhand names changed again 2011 and I-M223 became I2a2a, but the testing companies were slow to take up the new names, especially 23andMe. FTDNA tried to use their own naming system but then changed to the shorthand form, so they wouldn't have to update the name as the tree grew.
       In June 2018, Haplogroup I had another restructuring to accommodate more new branches and the I-M223 branch was renamed I2a1b1.
       You can see the new Haplogroup I tree and scroll down to I2a1b1 at:
    https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1WkRe8UxrhMZ-CaYtPET5rIBbzqCNkGER4YJurbG2ESQ/edit#gid=198726360.
       You can also see a I-M223 Y-Tree based on a FamilyTreeDNA "Big Y" tests being analyzed by YFull.com at https://www.yfull.com/tree/I-M223/.

    ⁶—And definitely different than Edmond Hawes's (I-M253) and Johann Christian Hauß's (R-M269).

    ⁷—Nature still keeps trying to finish us off. In 1918-1919, Influenza killed up to 40 million people worldwide, about 5% of the entire human population. When nature couldn't do it, we tried mass genocide, world wars, and now we're killing our climate. I'll bet nature can't wait to get rid of us.

    ⁸—A random sampling of surnames from I-M233 projects on the Internet: Dryer (German), Kazadzidis (Trapezuntine Greek), Pereira (Brazilian), Chumley (English), Bényi (Hungarian), Al Jaafari (Egyptian), Chitchyan (Armenian), González (Mexican), and Izzard (English, celebrity). So why doesnt Eddie Izzard look exactly like a Bényi or an Al Jaafari? It's because our general charateristics are determined by our autosomal DNA and not our mtDNA or Y DNA haplogroup. Two individuals can have identical mtDNA and Y DNA markings and look completely different as far as eye, hair and skin color, along with other physical attributes.

    ⁹—Since the father's father's father's ... father's line (purely patrilineal), is only a miniscule portion of a person's total ancestry (there are over a million ancestors to one person in just twenty generations, and if you consider 25 years per generation, then in 12,000 years there are 480 generations between a modern Hause and Proto-Hause), the likelihood that a modern Hause inherited any gene other than the original I-M233 from Proto-Hause is zero, and a Hause's overall relatedness to other I2a1b1 (I-M233) men would be no bigger than his relatedness to their general population. It is, in one way, very much like a surname—just a name... but it's still fun to think about!

    SOURCES FOR THIS PAGE:

  • The Oxford Companion to Archaeology, by B.M. Fagan. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1996. p. 864. (ISBN 978-0-19-507618-9).
  • Glossary of Genetic Terms—2018, by ISOGG (the International Society of Genetic Genealogy).
  • Alec Jeffreys and Genetic Fingerprinting, Department of Genetics and Genome Biology, The University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.
  • The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans: A Y Chromosome Perspective, by Ornella Semino, Giuseppe Passarino, Peter J. Oefner, Alice A. Lin, Svetlana Arbuzova, Lars E. Beckman, Giovanna De Benedictis, Paolo Francalacci, Anastasia Kouvatsi, Svetlana Limborska, Mladen Marcikiæ, Anna Mika, Barbara Mika, Dragan Primorac, A. Silvana Santachiara-Benerecetti, Luca Cavalli-Sforza, and Peter A. Underhill; in "Science" Magazine, Vol 290, 10 Nov 2000. (The paper which introduced the "Eu" haplogroups)
  • Genetic evidence for archaic admixture in Africa, by M. F. Hammer, A. E. Woerner, F. L. Mendez, J. C. Watkins, J. D. Wall. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1109300108.
  • Haplogroup I2 (Y-DNA) page on Eupedia.
  • Phylogeography of Y-Chromosome Haplogroup I Reveals Distinct Domains of Prehistoric Gene Flow in Europe, by Rootsi Siiri; Kivisild, Toomas; Benuzzi, Giorgia; Help, Hela; Bermisheva, Marina; Kutuev, Ildus; Barać, Lovorka; Peričić, Marijana; Balanovsky, Oleg; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Dion, Daniel; Grobei, Monica; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Battaglia, Vincenza; Achilli, Alessandro; Al-Zahery, Nadia; Parik, Jüri; King, Roy; Cinnioğlu, Cengiz; Khusnutdinova, Elsa; Rudan, Pavao; Balanovska, Elena; Scheffrahn, Wolfgang; Simonescu, Maya; Brehm, Antonio; Goncalves, Rita; Rosa, Alexandra; Moisan, Jean-Paul; Chaventre, Andre; et al. (2004) American Journal of Human Genetics. 75 (1): 128-137. doi:10.1086/422196. PMC 1181996 Freely accessible. PMID 15162323. Rootsi and colleagues in 2004 suggested that each of the ancestral populations now dominated by a particular subclade of Haplogroup I-M170 experienced an independent population expansion immediately after the Last Glacial Maximum. The five known cases of Haplogroup I from Upper Paleolithic European human remains make it one of the most frequent haplogroup from that period. In 2016, the 31,210-34,580-year-old remains of a hunter-gatherer from Paglicci Cave, Apulia, Italy were found to carry I-M170. So far, only Haplogroup F* and Haplogroup C1b have been documented, once each, on older remains in Europe. I2 subclade of I-M170 is the main haplogroup found on male remains in Mesolithic Europe, until circa 6,000 BCE, when mass migration into Europe of Middle Eastern farmers carrying Y-DNA G2a happened.
  • The Mountains of Giants: An Anthropometric Survey of Male Youths in Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Grasgruber P, Popović S, Bokuvka D, Davidović I, Hřebíčková S, Ingrová P, Potpara P, Prce S, Stračárová N. 2017, R. Soc. open sci. 4: 161054.
  • New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree, by Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF (2008). Genome Research. 18 (5): 830-8. doi:10.1101/gr.7172008. PMC 2336805 Freely accessible. PMID 18385274
  • The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia, by Johannes Krause, Qiaomei Fu, Jeffrey M. Good, Bence Viola, Michael V. Shunkov, Anatoli P. Derevianko & Svante Pääbo. 2010. Nature 464(7290):894-897.
  • The Age of Homo Sapiens in the Atlas of Human Evolution.
  • Cheddar Man: Mesolithic Britain's blue-eyed boy, by Kerry Lotzof, written for The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD.
  • Haplogroup Path Tool, developed by Brad Larkin: Enter your or a suspected match's most recently tested or predicted haplogroup down at the botton and press SEARCH. A path will come up showing the path of mutations from Y Adam down your paternal line to the SNP you entered.

  • Paleo-artist John Gurche at work (photo by Homo sapien Julie Prisloe).
    TOP PHOTO: Homo neanderthalensis reconstruction by John Gurche, which was Photoshopped onto a photograph of Laban Hause from 1860, alongside a reverse image of Laban, with the Photoshopped head of the author. Why? I don't know, I just thought it was funny, and visually connected this scientific genetics gibberish to the family history. Our Hause DNA shows no traces of Neanderthal ancestry (but who knows, it was a long time ago).
       Paleo-artist John Gurche uses fossil specimens to create renderings of prehistoric creatures, and was a consultant for the movie Jurassic Park. Gurche created the Neanderthal bust, along with other lifelike head reconstructions of early humans, for the Hall of Human Origins in the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. It took Gurche 2½ years to complete the busts.
       Gurche is currently an artist-in-residence at the Museum of the Earth in Ithaca, New York, near where my brother, Eric Hause, lives. To the best of my knowledge, Eric was not used as a model for any of the busts.

    SOURCES FOR THIS PAGE

  • CARL LINNAEUS (23 May 1707 - 10 Jan 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist, physician, and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, and his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761, Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in Sweden, but became one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe. Linnaeus' remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself.
  • SIR ALEC JOHN JEFFREYS (b. 9 Jan 1950) discovered the technique of genetic fingerprinting in a laboratory in the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester in 1984. He developed techniques for genetic fingerprinting and DNA profiling which are now used worldwide in forensic science. The development of DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) greatly increased sensitivity and a move to alternative marker systems. The most commonly used markers are now variable microsatellites, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), which Jeffreys first exploited in 1990 in the Josef Mengele case in Brazil. Dr. Jeffreys also made the technology available for people to perform identity tests. Since the 1980s, DNA testing has just become a popular way of finding out things through people's DNA. He is a professor of genetics at the University of Leicester. In 1994, he was knighted for services to genetics.