Stuart
   The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom, and their dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to 1714. They ruled during an age of intense religious debate and radical politics. And their actions would have a huge effect on the history of our family. Historically, they were first found in Scotland (their castle is shown above). But their sphere of influence would grow much father than that, or even the United Kingdom.
   King James I of England (19 June 1566–27 March 1625) ruled over England, Scotland and Ireland—the first Sovereign to reign in the three realms simultaneously—and the first English monarch of the Stuart dynasty, succeeding the last Tudor monarch, Elizabeth I, who died unmarried and childless. He was the only son of Mary Queen of Scots, and reigned in Scotland as James VI for 36 years before becoming James I of the combined kingdoms after Elizabeth's death in 1603.
   James is considered to have been one of the most intellectual and learned individuals ever to sit on the English or Scottish Throne, but also impulsive and conceited, with the nickname "the wisest fool in Christendom." Luminaries such as Sir Francis Bacon and William Shakespeare flourished during his reign (Shakespeare's company became The King's Men, which also required them to act as courtiers–something the poet wasn't keen on). James himself was a talented scholar, writing works such as Dæmonologie (1597), The True Law of Free Monarchies (1598), Basilikon Doron (1599) and A Counterblast to Tobacco (1604).

King James I
   James was a popular and successful monarch in Scotland, but the same was not true in England. There were allegations that he was a homosexual. When James inherited the English Throne in 1603, it was openly joked in London that Rex fuit Elizabeth: nunc est regina Jacobus (Elizabeth was King: now James is Queen).
   But his biggest public relations problem had to do with religion. There was a strong Catholic minority in England, a few of who tried to blow up Parliament in 1605 with Guy Fawkes. The Church of England, meanwhile, had splintered into a radical Puritan movement, which was taking over that same Parliament. And neither side liked James. He was unable to deal with a hostile English Parliament, and the refusal on the part of the House of Commons to impose sufficiently high taxes crippled the royal finances. But he endeared himself to Protestants by marrying Anne of Denmark—a Princess from a Protestant country and daughter of Frederick II of Denmark—by proxy in 1589. They married again, this time with both parties personally present, on 21 January 1590 at Krondborg during James's visit to Denmark.
   Soon following his return via Leith on 1 May, he attended the North Berwick Witch Trial, in which several people were convicted of having used witchcraft to create a storm in an attempt to sink the ship on which James and Anne had been traveling. This made him very concerned about the threat that witches and witchcraft were posing to himself and the country. He wrote the aforementioned Dæmonologie (Demonology). As a result, hundreds of females were put to death for witchcraft; their bodies were found in what used to be called Nor Loch (now Princes Street Gardens). This event set the tone for what our British ancestors in Salem, Massachusetts, would face a hundred years later in America.
   At first, James and his new queen were close, but they gradually drifted apart. The couple produced eight children, three of whom survived infancy and one was stillborn. They decided to live apart after the death of their last child, Sophia:

CHILDREN OF KING JAMES I AND ANNE OF DENMARK

  • Henry, Prince of Wales. Born on 19 February 1594. Died on 6 November 1612 .
  • Elizabeth Stuart, born on 19 August 1596, died on 13 February 1662. She married in 1613, to Frederick V, Elector Palatine; had issue, listed below.
  • Margaret Stuart, born on 24 December 1598. Died in March 1600.
  • HM King Charles I, born on 19 November 1600. Executed on 30 January 1649. He married in 1625, to Henrietta Maria; and had issue.
  • Robert, Duke of Kintyre and Lorne, born on 18 February 1602. Died 27 May 1602.
  • Unnamed son who was born and died in May of 1603.
  • Mary Stuart, born on 8 April 1605; Died on 16 December 1607.
  • Sophia Stuart, born on 22 June 1606; Died on 28 June 1606.
  •    From 1618 onwards, the religious conflict known as the Thirty Years' War convulsed Europe. James I was forced to become involved because his daughter, Elizabeth, was married to the Protestant Frederick V, Elector Palatine, one of the war's chief participants...

    THE PALATINE STUART: ELIZABETH


    Elizabeth, the Palatine Stuart. "Winterkönigs" by Gerrit van Honthorst
       James' daughter in the Palatinate, named Elizabeth Stuart, would play an extremely important role in the story of our family. (In fact if you believe family legend, we're related to her.) She was said to be incredibly beautiful, and she attracted most of the royal suitors of Europe (she was nicknamed the “Queen of Hearts”).
       But Elizabeth was finally married in 1613 to Elector Palatine Frederick V, in order to cement an alliance between English and German Protestantism. But when Frederick tried to take over Bohemia, everything fell apart.
       
    James I was allied with Catholic Spain, an opponent of Elizabeth's Palatinate. This occurred because James had been faced with financial difficulties after Parliament refused to approve new taxes, and he had sought to enter into a profitable alliance with Spain by marrying his eldest son, Charles, Prince of Wales, off to the daughter of the King of Spain. The proposed alliance with a Roman Catholic kingdom was not well-received in Protestant England, especially when the Spanish were trying to overthrow his daughter.
       
    Frederick and Elizabeth were defeated and exiled to Holland, and the Spanish took over the Palatinate. This created a wedge in the family that lasted for the next Century, and doomed the dynasty.
    The union turned out to be a strong one, outlasting his rule over the Palatinate (detailed here in our family history), through years of exile.
       Frederick and Elizabeth took up their residence in Holland, where she courageously endured privation and misfortune. She received little support from abroad, even from her son Charles Louis, who was restored to the Palatinate in 1648.
       In 1661, Elizabeth returned to England against the wishes of her nephew, King Charles II, who, however, pensioned her. The continuing Stuart interest in the Palatinate would be a driving force behind England's assistance to Palatines fleeing to the New World in the early 1700's, as the Stuarts were still in control there. (Ironically, Elizabeth's Stuart line would one day rule England, too. After the death of Queen Anne in 1714, there were no direct descendants in England, so Elizabeth's grandson would rule as George I.)
       Frederick and Elizabeth had the following children:

    CHILDREN OF FREDERICK V AND ELIZABETH STUART

  • Frederick Henry 1614-1629--drowned .
  • Karl I Ludwig, Elector Palatine (1610-1680), who gained a new title of Elector Count Palatine of the Rhine, Archtreasurer of the Empire, as well as most of his father's lands as part of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 at the conclusion of the Thirty Years' War. Karl Ludwig reigned over a largely devastated country, and consequently his reign was not especially eventful. The most notable facet of his reign was probably his unilateral divorce of his wife, Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel, and subsequent bigamous marriage to Marie Luise von Degenfeld. This second wife was given the unique title of Raugräfin ("Waste Count"), and their children were known as the Raugraves.
  • Elizabeth of Hervorden; Elisabeth von der Pfalz or Elisabeth of Bohemia or Princess Palatine (1618-1680) was the eldest daughter of Frederick V and Elisabeth Stuart. She is well-known for having established a philosophical correspondence with Rene Descartes that lasted for seven years until his death in 1650.
  • Prince Rupert, 1619–82, count palatine of the Rhine. Born in Prague, he grew up in the Netherlands and studied at Leiden. Active in the later part of the Thirty Years War against the Holy Roman Empire, he was at the siege of Breda (1637) and was taken prisoner (1638). Released in 1641, he went to the aid of his uncle, King Charles I of England, in the civil wars. Despite his youth Rupert became an outstanding royalist general. During the Restoration of the Stuart kings under Charles II (1660), he became a privy councilor to Charles II, and, as an admiral, played an important part in the Dutch Wars. A man of many artistic and scientific interests, Rupert also took part in colonial and commercial schemes, notably in the ventures of the Hudson's Bay Company.
  • Maurice von Simmern (1620-1652) who also served in the English Civil War. Drowned.
  • Louise Hollandine (1622-1709) .
  • Louis (1624-1625).
  • Edward of Bavaria (1625-1663).
  • Henrietta Maria (1626-1651).
  • John Philip Frederick (1627-1650).
  • Charlotte (1628-1631).

  • Sophia of Hanover
  • The Electress Sophia of Hanover was born Sophia, Pfalzgräfin von Simmern, at The Hague on October 14, 1630, and died at Herrenhausen on June 8, 1714. She married Ernst August, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg at Heidelberg September 30, 1658. He became the Elector of Hanover in 1692. As the daughter of Elizabeth Stuart, who was in turn the daughter of James I & VI of England and Scotland, she was inserted into the line of succession to the British throne behind Queen Anne, as her closest Protestant heir, by the Act of Settlement 1701, for the purpose of cutting off any claim by the Catholic James Francis Edward Stuart, who would otherwise have become King James III, as well as denying the throne to many other Catholics who held a claim. Sophia would have inherited the throne and would have been crowned Queen of Great Britain if she had not died before Anne. Upon her death, Sophia's eldest son Elector Georg Ludwig of Hanover became Heir Presumptive in her place, and weeks later succeeded Queen Anne as King George I of Great Britain, though he could hardly speak any English. Sophia's daughter Sophia Charlotte of Hanover (1668-1705), married Frederick I of Prussia, starting the lineage of Prussian kings and German emperors. The connection between the German emperors and the British royal family would become an issue during World War I. Sophia had additional sons, none of whom had children. Those who grew up were:
  • Friedrich August von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Imperial General, died without issue (1661-1691)
  • Maximilian Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, field marshall in the Imperial Army, died without issue (1666-1726)
  • Karl Philipp von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, colonel in the Imperial Army, died without issue (1669-1690)
  • Christian von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, died without issue (1671-1703)
  • Ernst August II von Braunschweig-Lüneburg Duke of York and Albany, became bishop of Osnabrück and died without issue (1674-1728)
  •    Queen Anne died on 4 March 1619 at Hampton Court Palace and was buried at Westminster Abbey. Rumors were later spread that James was little moved by the death due to his supposed affections for George Villiers. The two met in 1614 and James is said to have nicknamed the young man "Steenie" and bestowed honor upon honor to him, ending with the dukedom of Buckingham in 1623. George Villiers was the first non-royal duke to be created for over a century.
       James lapsed into senility during the last year of his reign. Real power passed to Charles, Prince of Wales and to the Duke of Buckingham. James died in 1625 of ague, probably brought upon by kidney failure and stroke, and was buried in the Henry VII Lady Chapel in Westminster Abbey. Charles, Prince of Wales succeeded him as Charles I.
       Charles inherited a troubled country. Calvanist Puritans were revolting from the established churches and leaving for America and religious freedom by the thousands. And James' erratic actions as King led to a bloody civil war in the mid-seventeenth century between Crown and Parliament (the Cavaliers and the Roundheads), resulting in a parliamentary victory for Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I. He suffered his beheading with great dignity, "by no known law and an unknown executioner."
       There was a short-lived republic (11 years), but the Stuarts soon regained the throne in the Restoration, now with Charles II as King, in 1660. Unlike his father, Charles II was skilled at managing Parliament. It has often been said that Charles was one of the greatest Kings England has ever seen. It was during his reign that the Whig and Tory political parties developed. He famously fathered numerous illegitimate children, of whom he acknowledged fourteen. Known as the "Merry Monarch", Charles was a patron of the arts and less restrictive than many of his predecessors. The dynasty of the Stuarts appeared healthy again.

    The Stuart Dynasty: James I, Elizabeth (of the Palatinate), Charles I, Charles II, James II.

       Charles' nephew, the Duke of York, was the next in line to rule. He married Anne Hyde, daughter to Charles II's chief advisor, the Earl of Clarendon. Whether through years of Royal inbreeding or just bad luck, the Stuarts were not a hearty family, and although this union bore eight children, only Mary and her younger sister, Anne, survived into adulthood.
       The Duke converted to Roman Catholicism in 1668 or 1669, but Princess Mary and Princess Anne had a Protestant upbringing, pursuant to the command of Charles II. Their mother died in 1671, and then the Duke remarried in 1673, taking as his second wife the Catholic Mary of Modena, also known as Mary Beatrice d'Este.
       This did not go over well with the largely Protestant Parliament, or the people of England, because the Duke was in line to become the next King. So the Duke used his daughter, Mary (pictured at left), to ease their discontent. And nothing pleases the masses like a good, old-fashioned Royal Wedding.

       So at the age of fifteen, Mary became betrothed to her first cousin, the Protestant Stadtholder and Prince of Orange, William III (he was the son of Mary's aunt, Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange) of the Netherlands. William was one of the most significant players on the European continent, and constantly strove to spread Protestantism and decrease the Catholic influence of France and Spain.
       Pressured by a very Protestant Parliament, the very Catholic Duke of York agreed to the marriage of Princess Mary to William, falsely assuming that it would improve his popularity. But it didn't work, and in fact it eventually sealed his doom after his ascension to the throne as King of England.
       William and Mary were married in London on the 4th of November in 1677. But their marriage began under duress: She was twelve years younger than William, homesick, and to top it off, she found him repulsive. Even after they did finally consummate the marriage, she had three pregnancies that all ended in miscarriage or stillbirth. Still, Mary became popular with the Dutch people, but her husband neglected or even mistreated her. William maintained a long affair with Elizabeth Villiers, one of Mary's ladies-in-waiting. But despite this, Mary eventually came to love both the man and the Netherlands.
       But the marriage did not ease the fears of Protestant England: By converting to Roman Catholicism on his deathbed, Charles II became the first Roman Catholic to reign over England since the death of Mary I in 1558 and over Scotland since the deposition of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1567. To make matters worse, he had died without legitimate issue in 1685, so Mary's father became King, as James II in England and Ireland, and as James VII in Scotland. But he also was Catholic!.
       Public alarm increased when James's second wife gave birth to a son—James Francis Edward—in June 1688, for the son would, unlike Mary and Anne, be raised a Roman Catholic. Some charged that the boy was "suppositions," having been secretly brought in as a substitute for the Queen's stillborn baby. Although there was no evidence to support the allegation, Mary publicly challenged the boy's legitimacy, leading to a breach with her father.
       Parliament was so desperate to prevent a Catholic dynasty that they actually begged a foreign ruler to invade their country! A group of English noblemen called the "Immortal Seven" secretly asked William III to come to England with an army and take over their country. At first William hedged, because he was afraid that if Mary was queen, she would have more power than him. But she assured him that she had no interest in running the British Empire, and he finally agreed to invade. The Dutch army landed on November fifth.
       This was many centuries before politicians could learn of their approval ratings (or even care about them), but the English people's support for James stood so low that they didn't attempt to save him. On the 11th of December, he tried to flee, but was intercepted, then exiled to France.
       And with that, William and Mary became rulers of England, the country of her birth, having conquered her very own dad.
       Mary, although a Sovereign in her own right, did not wield actual power during most of her reign. But she did govern the realm when her husband was abroad fighting wars—which was often. She was very involved in the affairs of the Church; and found herself especially concerned with ecclesiastical appointments.
       But then Mary died of smallpox in 1694. William then ruled until he died in 1702 after being thrown from his horse.

    KEEPING ABREAST OF ROYALTY: Portraits of (L-R) then-eligible Princess Mary, a sculpture of Mary, Mary as a Queen, Princess Anne, and Anne as a queen, with their various cleavages, which get noticeably more demure as they get more and powerful.

       The next in line to rule was Mary's sister, Anne, who was married to Prince George of Denmark. She was a committed Protestant and also supported the revolution that deposed her father. (This family had some serious paternal issues.)
       Meanwhile, the Palatine line of the Stuarts, descended from Elizabeth, the daughter of James I, were having Catholic issues, too. Their land was being decimated by the Dauphin, the French, and other German states, who were battling over the remnants of their once-Reformist domain The official religion of the Palatinate was changing constantly, and the people who stayed true to their chosen religion were being tortured, killed and robbed of their land.
       Despite what's written in the Hause Family Bibles, it was probably Anne who offered our family sanctuary, not Mary, because she was very active in government, and was particularly involved in the Palatines' emigration to the American Colonies.
       Lutherans and Calvinists from the Palatinate were begging for sanctuary from the ravaged, war-torn area, which for centuries had been a haven for non-Catholic Christians. Not only that, the besieged people had been subjects of Elizabeth Stuart, the daughter of Anne's great, great grandfather, James the First.
       So in the early 1700's, Anne began recruiting Palatines to sail to the New World, in order to develop and protect British holdings, as described in the last chapter. She began offering poor Palatines good land and religious freedom in the Colonies around 1709, in exchange for indentured servitude. It was a harsh, terrifying and dangerous journey across the ocean to a rough, uncivilized territory filled with hostile Indians, Dutch, French, animal predators and disease. In other words, it was the last place a queen would send a "cousin." But she did send the Hauss family to America.

    Heads of the House of Stewart

    Dapifers of Dol
    Flaald I (died c.1080)
    Alan I (died ?)
    Alan II (died 1095)
    Flaald II (died c.1101-1102)
    Alan III (died c.1121)

    High Stewards of Scotland
    Walter the Steward, 1st High Steward of Scotland (died 1177)
    Alan Stewart, 2nd High Steward of Scotland (died 1204)
    Walter Stewart, 3rd High Steward of Scotland (died 1246)
    Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland (died 1283)
    James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland (died 1309)
    Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland (died 1326)
    Robert Stewart, 7th High Steward of Scotland (afterwards, Robert II)

    Scottish Monarchs
    Robert II (1371-1390)
    Robert III (1390-1406)
    James I (1406-1437)
    James II (1437-1460)
    James III (1460-1488)
    James IV (1488-1513)
    James V (1513-1542)
    Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1567)
    James VI (1567-1625)

    British Monarchs
    James VI of Scotland and I of England (1603-1625) - Jacobean Age
    Charles I of England and Scotland (1625-1649) - Carolean Age
    Charles II of England and Scotland (1660-1685) - Restoration Age
    James VII of Scotland and II of England (1685-1688) (continued to claim the English and Scottish thrones after his deposition in 1688 until his death in 1701)
    Mary II of England and Scotland (1689-1694) - with William III of England and II of Scotland, of the House of Orange-Nassau, a descendant of Charles I
    Anne of England and Scotland (1702-1714) - Augustan Age
    (During the period between Charles I and Charles II, England was a Republican Commonwealth, and then a Protectorate under Oliver Cromwell and Richard Cromwell.)


    Pretenders
    James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, claimed throne as James VIII of Scotland and III of England, (1701-1766)
    Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, claimed throne as Charles III, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, (1766-1788)
    Henry Benedict Stuart, claimed throne as Henry IX of Britain, (1766-1807)